Pragmatic functions and translation of mark

public sign language is used in public signs and deixis,  slogans used for some sort of propaganda or agitation,  deixis to indicate that thing or person or position and movement. Public sign-language types and uses many temporary identity, long the,  identity; activities identified, fixed identity;  Festival banners, landscape identity;  public identity, promotion identifies a class, warning such logo, advertising class identifies;  as well as icons and text labels. It has become used to motivate people to emotional, ,  human social behaviors to watch out for fault and loss,  important means of improving the efficiency and quality of production and services. In urban construction, tourism, transport, industrial production, business activity, political advocacy, and much more public logo plays an increasingly important role in,  and it shows a community service,  even a city of civilization and development. In the case of external exchanges increasing,

unique nature as a widely used and practical style,  of the increasingly prominent role of bilingual sign language,  sign language translation is more and more worthy of our attention.

language, marking one of the characteristics of

1.  clearly and concisely

characteristic of maximum is concise and clear public sign language. Sign language used in public places,  its function is to correct language

communicate specific information. Sign-language audience is often uncertain flows of people,  it must be sharp and clear in order to attract the attention of people,  must also be simple and easy to understand,  to highlight its spreading effects. 如:

no parking No Parking

carefully slide Caution:Wet Floor

,  in case of an emergency, please press the red button to switch off the power supply. Should there be urgent situations, press this

red button to switch off the electricity.

Additionally,  should not affect specific functions and meanings of,  sign language as often and the title of the article will highlight the full word,  omitted words, pronouns, auxiliary structure or function words. 如:

Please go through the side door Use side door, please!

attention to the pedestrian Caution Pedestrians

there are explosives,  safety Danger: Explosive

2.  forms

stylistic features and translation of text language must be considered pragmatic functions. Public sign language involved in production and daily life of many people

,  in the form of a variety,  in Chinese words, phrases, sentences, text and other forms of sign language,  English abbreviations in sign language.

( 1)   as the abbreviation form of sign language

car park p

toilet WC

Headquarters GHQ,/  command

( 2)   for word forms of sign language

hush Quiet, Please

One Way Street a one-way street

information Information

( 3)   the phrase forms of sign language

no fishing No Fishing

80 percent discount on 20% Off

clean Keep Clean

hold handrail Hold the Hand Rail

( 4)   performance for the sentences of the form markup language

do not Do not get on or off while bus is in motion,  car did not stop

Thorpe construction here,  We apologize for the inconvenience,  Sopo apologize for any inconvenience during these essential works

difficulty,  the police If you are in trouble, don''t hesitate to turn to the police for help

,  in order to avoid congestion please do not stay on the stairs To avoid congestion please do not stand near the stairs

( 5)   for text forms of sign language

to promote trade through open alternatives to, ,  to introduce and promote transformation of  To promote economic development by opening to the outside world; to  promote external trade by expanding foreign economic cooperation; to promote industrial renovation by  importing equipment, technology and capital[1]

Hangzhou JIU XI "shelter"---it is said that Emperor Kang XI had this shelter from,  named. Headed by Emperor Kangxi shibei,  the inscription vividly describes the complacent mood when the Kangxi Emperor traveled along the Qiantang River. The Rain Sheltering Pavilion: The pavilion is so named because legend has it that Emperor  Kangxi( 1654- 1722) of the Qing Dynasty ( 1644- 1912) once took shelter here in the  rain. The poem on the stele, written by the emperor, vividly describes his proud and  ambitious state of mind during his visit to the Hangzhou area. [2]

underground gift shopping street, don't miss tour the Bund, Nanjing Jie back 15 m Be sure to visit our underground gift and souvenir plaza when strolling down  Nanjing Road or the bund. Walk back 15 meters. [3]

explosives found:  your awareness can save countless lives. If you see any suspicious package or,  do not touch. ,&Nbsp; warning others to evacuate. Bomb detectors, your awareness can save lives. If you see any suspicious package or bag, do  not touch. Warn others. Move away. [4]

last 6  day we,  100  no main package has been found to ensure good safety,  Please feel free to carry your luggage. Please seriously with. Thank you! More than 100 bags left unattended in the last 6 days. Help us keep the Tube  safe bykeeping your bags with you at all times. Please take this request seriously. Thank  you!

rich in 3.  style

overall,  public sign language concise,  but with the styles that are used as flexible,  colloquial, descriptions, advertising style, legal writing, poetry, political style, and so on. 如:

( 1)   oral

Welcome to Thank you for visiting, goodbye!

to pay tribute to you! Pleasevacant the seat for the disabled if required. Thanks for seat,  bus for the disabled person

your kindness!

Please keep the corridor open Keep this doorway clear!

be careful of the steps Mind the steps

( 2)   description language

suspicious, , 110  police. If You See Anything Suspicious, Call 110 For The Police.

guest:  fire,  bent,  to avoid the smoke Attention: Keep as low to the floor as possible to avoid smoke  inhalation in case of fire. [5]

emergency use only Emergency Use Only.

( 3)   ad styles

warmly welcome domestic and foreign merchants to come to discuss the order. We welcome enquires and orders.

manufacturer specials direct Deal direct with manufacturer at special prices

come in and win! Come and Win!

your satisfaction is our pursuit. Your satisfaction is our priority.

( 4)   legal style

all rights reserved,  reprinting will All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in  any form.

,  request to safeguard your rights and keep the receipt.  Always ask for the receipt and keep it for any claim.

smoking in public places a maximum fine of $ 2000 .  You can be prosecuted for smoking in public. MAXIMUMPENALTY $2,000

alcoholic beverages is limited to 20  above. Drinks with alcohol are strictly sold to over 20's only.

( 5)   poetic style

grass green,  spare. The grass so fair, Needs your care!

shigu rang,  a ton of gold. Beat the Stone Drum, To let your good luck come! [6]

treasure life,  drugs. No To Drugs, Yes to Life.

Chinese,  peaceful development and prosperity in the new century. Worldwide Chinese Businessmen Join Hands in the New

Century for Peace, Development and Prosperity. [7]

( 6)   political style

hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping's theory,  the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. To hold high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory; To build a well- off society in  an all round way

strengthening financial cooperation in Asia and Europe,  to promote common development of all countries. Strengthening fiscal and financial cooperation between Asia and Europe to foster development among  ASEM partners.

strengthening conservation awareness, -building a conservation-minded society. To increase the awareness of conservation among all citizens; To build a conservative- conscious  society.

Second, the pragmatic functions of marked

Newmarket press:  information text can be divided into three categories function, emotive function, and function. Another beauty, phatic, meta-language, three class features,  but usually there is very little text will only have a function,  most of the text is a feature-oriented,  and other functions. Public markup language used in all aspects of daily life,  provide information service,  call or restrictions, constraints, social,  and other kinds of practical style with a variety of functions.

1.  information

any text to convey some information,  and public information functions of marking is more prominent. Sign language mainly in shopping streets, tourist attractions,  provides business and community service. Information service with the typical markup language commonly referred to as the identifying premises, institutions, buildings of the nouns,  or circumstances under which tells people how to do a descriptive text phrases. 如:

Metro Underground

export/  exit Exit

men's room Gentlemen's

machine,  stop Out of Order

dead Not Through

smoking is harmful to health Smoking is dangerous for your health.

sorry,  This window closed. Position Closed Sorry For Any Inconvenience.

KFC 7  day,  day 24  hours a week to serve you.  KEC Open 24 Hrs A Day Seven Days.

2.  expression function

expressive function is not limited to the aesthetic dimension of literary works,  it refers to information sent to treat the outside world more objects and phenomena of,  expression function of the text is based on the Messenger. Public marked language as a public Exchange way, most marked language are is anonymous of,  and has some slogans publicity of is celebrity quotes,  these slogans convey of is information sent who for things of awareness, and evaluation and attitude,  addition also some some institutions or place of publicity slogans,  its performance of is they on public by for of personalized of emotional expression,  to evokes public of concern,  improve itself of reputation. 如:

we are concerned about the!  critical! We care! We want your comments! [4]

new Beijing, new Olympic NewBeijing, Great Olympics.

being extremely,  list of small hills. Ascending the Height, You Dwarf All the Mountains Around.

concentrate on construction,  and development. We will concentrate on construction and development. [8]41

has many tourist attractions sign language is the use of poetic language to describe the attractions featured,  enabling readers senses,  its emphasis is to make sign language beautiful,  deepen readers and tourists to scenic spots and cultural understanding and aesthetic experience,  affecting the site, impressions and evaluation of,  in order to attract more tourists. 如:

three ponds mirroring the Moon Three Pools Mirroring the Moon.

poetry and painting, landscapes in the South Zhejiang. Poetic Jiangnan; Picturesque Zhejiang [9]35

happy land tour of Fujian province. A Happy Tour to A Happy Land———Fujian Province [9]35

Diego Diego mountains, heavy winter Springs loop, ,  song ring Ding Ding Ding,  up and down the tree. (  Seal inscribed)  The hills--- range after range; The Trails ———winding and climbing; The creeks——— murmuring and gurgling; The trees ——— highand  low. [9]125

3.  function

for some sort of propaganda or agitation for public information posters and advertisements focus on the effectiveness of information transfer and the reader's emotions echo effect,  to arouse readers to think,  readers respond in a particular way,  This type of marking is mainly implemented its "function". 如:

go to work happily,  to come back home safely. Safety first in driving. [10]

safer roads not water,  drivers,  drivers do not drink,  roads safer. The driver is safer when the road is dry; the road is safer when the driver is  dry.

for the next passenger convenience,  with a tissue after use Please clean the basin. Thank you! As a courtesy to the next passenger, may we suggest that you use your towel to  wipe off water basin! Thank you!

Please keep your carry-on items! Please keep in your carry- on article.

third, sign language translation

from the above discussion, we can see that the,  the public sign language concise and clear style, diversity and rich,  its functional features. Sign language translation belong to translation,  it pass information to,  transfer,  and the information must follow the reader "delighted" and "tastes" standards of beauty. Application of translation and literary translation difference is that: "seeks to highlight the personalities of literature and art of literary translation,  translation in pursuit of a cultural diversity,  opposite,  in a sense,  the text function, its purpose is not ' different ',  but to the greatest extent possible to ' ',  to reduce barriers to information exchange,  Effective realization of the intended function and purpose of the translation. "[8] functional approaches to translation purposes and functions as a translation of,  features a different translation of the text you want to use different strategies and methods. Public,  markup language with a wide variety of pragmatic functions in public sign language translator,  translator must focus on the function of different text pass,  to take a different approach.

1.  information-sign language translation

information-text's core objective is to provide readers with the real world things and phenomena. Information markup language settings is to provide institutional and traffic tips for information,  or circumstances under which tells people what to do, how to do it. Informational sign language audience is most concerned about is that they have access to accurate and effective translation of information,  in process,  the most important is to ensure message authenticity and accuracy. Accurate information cannot be passed to the target reader misunderstood as criteria for judging. 如:

Zhenjiang city, one of the regional label "high-tech development zone" with English translations under "Zhenjiang NewEnterprises Area". In fact, "New Enterprises" in English "new/ ", and "high-tech development zone" should be "High- tech Development District". Original signs to provide the information is inaccurate. Nanjing station "direction of the waiting room to the South" and "North to the waiting room" equipped with translation is "South Waiting Hall" and "North Waiting Hall". The information provided the translation for foreigners is "waiting room in the South" and "North waiting room",  instead of the original markup language that tells people in the trains direction waiting for information,  information caused confusion or error. English translation here

to use "Southbound Only" and "Northbound only" [7].

2.  expressive markup language translation

expressive discourse is the core of the text the sender's thoughts and feelings,  thus the author's personality component constitutes the expression of this type of text element. For expressive markup language translator,  translator should be as close to the original as the language of the syntactic and semantic structure of the original contextual meaning accurately convey the personality of the,  to highlight the text. 如:

great wall scenic spot of Mao Zedong's famous poem, "to the great wall is not a true man",  This verse has the following two kinds of translation "He who

doesn't reach the Great Wall is not a true man "and" One Couldn't be in China without  Visiting the Great Wall ",  the author has consulted several teachers feel about both of these translations, and they all said that the first literal so that they can better understand the Mao Ze-Dong's heroes and heroic bearing,  the second translation has no such effect. Dalian recently to "romantic A Romantic City" [11] ad highlights positioned accurately, ,  English meaning of urban tourism and fashion statement-a slight gap. If "A Romantic City" adjustment "City of Romance" avoids the use of the indefinite article brings the content words post-,  rhythm front-loaded,  lack of deviation from the language style of fashion.

3.  call sign language translation

call the text focuses on the effectiveness of information transfer---that is, "calls" the expected response to the reader. This class marked language of translation process in the,  translator must obedience translation readers of appreciate habits and psychological feel,  as using they by familiar of language expression way,  to infection by all,  reached expected of effect,  in specific of operation in the can on text for form of adjustment and improved,  discarded original language expression in the vague, and ambiguity or synonymous repeatedly, phenomenon,  as makes translation authentic smooth,   Clear,  to enhance the readability and acceptability of the translation. 如:

I have seen such a waiting room sign language "for you please go to the smoking room smoking and health, . "Belongs to the Italian-language,  language does not look,  not find what's wrong with this sentence, we will of course accept the true intention of the sign language---drew the attention of smokers not to smoke in the,  and does not think it is an appeal to people smoking. Translation, however, it should be noted that elimination of irregularities of the original expression. The markup language can be translated as "Smoking prohibited except in designated places!".

we discuss the features of sign language translation principles, ,  sign language translation should also be aware of "  simplicity" principles and "  manners".

whether Chinese or English language,  sign language is always clear and concise, and sign language translation must keep this language feature. Such as "unauthorized,  Please do not meddle with" Sir "Authorized person only" and "If you have not been authorized, please do not touch it". Expressions common in both translations are correct statements,  former,  concise than the latter. In addition and as "do not follow the cattle to market trading,  rainy day" translation "In order deal with them at out of market."   And "For your own safety, stay away from scalpers!" [3] which is better or worse,  speak for themselves.

sign language translation needs to adapt to the cultural background of the readers of,  considering the effect,  to achieve the expected results,  sign language settings thus follows its translation in cross-culture communication "courtesy". :&Nbsp; commercial places labeled "all goods at fixed price" translated as "No Bargaining." And "Fixed prices." Can be,  but they seem abrupt,  which more implicit and,  to customers more respect. Similarly, the "Staff only" can be translated as "employees only" and "no admittance into the",  the former more than the latter lets the customer feel comfortable.

IV conclusion

,  community services in the process of urbanization gradually improved, marking language in people's lives, their traffic plays an increasingly important role such as,  with the enhanced,  proper marking of foreign exchange translation becomes more and more important. Sign language has its own language features,  has the obvious function of,  these are a good translation, you need to know.


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On Pragmatic Functions and Trans lation of Expres s ions on Public Signs

LAN Hong- jun

( Department of Foreign Language, Guangdong Teachers College of Foreign Language and Arts,  Guangzhou510507, China)

Abs tract: Public signs are nowbeing widely used in urban life, and then good translation  of expressions on public signs calls for our attention. This paper makes a tentative study  of linguistic features; pragmatic functions of expressions on public signs, and suggests some  strategies and rules in translating them in accordance with their features and functions.

Key words : expressions on public signs; function; translation